Breakup of Yugoslavia (overview)
Constituents of Socialist Federal Republic (SFR) Yugoslavia
- Bosnia & Herzegovina
- Serbia + 2 autonomous provinces
Dictator Josep Broz Tito signs friendship treaty with USSR but rather soon (1948) splits from Stalin and decides to be neutral
Economic reforms take place: worker self-management, worker councils to control production/prices, profit-sharing
Liberalization & decentralization of government apparatus
Note: it was still a somewhat authoritarian state with a secret police (the UDBA), restrictions on media freedom, and prison sentences for vocal separatists. oops!
Also the two provinces within Serbia (Kosovo and Vojvodina) got more autonomy. Which was nice, considering there were lots of minority populations in both—Kosovo was actually majority Albanian—but bad for ethnic Serbs who saw it as a threat. Nationalists were like why don't OTHER countries have stupid provinces with lots of minorities? Serbians were ALSO mad bc Tito recognized Montenegrins and Macedonians as their own nationalities. Basically Serbs were super cringe
Serbian official Slobodan Milošević does a face-heel turn: he denounced the SANU memorandum BUT when he's sent in to defuse a protest in Kosovo, he sides w the ethnic Serbs against the majority Albanian government. Appealing to nationalism is not the move, sir... He embarks on a campaign founded on the reduction of provincial autonomy. Ethnonationalists love him. He wins the election in September.
Protests in Vojvodina culminate in the replacement of its parliament with Milošević supporters.
Montenegro intervenes in protests against its provincial government.
In November, the same happens in Kosovo, triggering mass protests both in favor and against Milošević's policies.
Serbia's constitution is revised to abolish autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina, though their Presidency seats remain. (just a power move by Milošević lbr)
Milošević becomes president of Serbia
Slovenia continues moves toward independence: political parties are established, constitution amended, and free elections provisioned. They also ban demonstrations by Serbs and Montenegrins (Croatia agrees), which earns them an embargo from Serbia.
Milošević cuts off electricity to parts of Croatia.
The Croatian Democratic Union is in power now on a nationalist policy claiming to protect the country from Milošević. Serbs around the region are uncomfy.
Elections were largely split along ethnic lines in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other places, although Milošević rejected the outcomes, saying Serbs had a right to self-determination.
The majority of Slovenians vote for independence in a referendum.
The Ten-Day War in Slovenia following their declaration of independence (June) and the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (April) signal the start of the Yugoslav Wars.
Macedonia declares independence in September.
Obv there's so much more that went into this and more after 1991, but I wanted to make a little roadmap for myself to start. I want to understand this conflict—and, more specifically, the ensuing Bosnian War—more thoroughly.